Chip carving

Chip carving or chip-carving, kerbschnitt in German, is a style of carving in which knives or chisels are used to remove small chips of the material from a flat surface in a single piece. The style became important in Migration Period metalwork, mainly Animal style jewellery, where the faceted surfaces created caught the light to give a glinting appearance. This was very probably a transfer to metalworking of a technique already used in woodcarving, but no wooden examples have survived. Famous Anglo-Saxon examples include the jewellery from Sutton Hoo and the Tassilo Chalice, though the style originated in mainland Europe. In later British and Irish metalwork, the same style was imitated using casting, which is often called imitation chip-carving, or sometimes just chip carving (authors are not always careful to distinguish the two), a term also sometimes applied to pottery decorated in a similar way. A chisel is a tool with a characteristically shaped cutting edge (such that wood chisels have lent part of their name to a particular grind) of blade on its end, for carving or cutting a hard material such as wood, stone, or metal. The handle and blade of some types of chisel are made of metal or wood with a sharp edge in it. In use, the chisel is forced into the material to cut it. The driving force may be manually applied or applied using a mallet or hammer. In industrial use, a hydraulic ram or falling weight ('trip hammer') drives the chisel into the material to be cut. A gouge, one type of chisel, is used, particularly in woodworking, woodturning and sculpture, to carve small pieces from the material. Gouges are most often used in creating concave surfaces. A gouge typically has a 'U'-shaped cross-section. Chisels have a wide variety of uses. Many types of chisel have been devised, each specially suited to its intended use. Different types of chisel may be constructed quite differently, in terms of blade width or length, as well as shape and hardness of blade. They may have a wooden or plastic handle at ached or may be made entirely of one piece of metal. [edit]Woodworking A sharp wood chisel in combination with a forstner wood drill bit is used to form this mortise for a half-lap joint in a timber frame. A worker uses a chisel to put the finishing touches on a dovetail joint for a timber frame. Woodworking chisels range from small hand tools for tiny details, to large chisels used to remove big sections of wood, in 'roughing out' the shape of a pattern or design. Typically, in woodcarving, one starts with a larger tool, and gradually progresses to smaller tools to finish the detail. One of the largest types of chisel is the slick, used in timber frame construction and wooden shipbuilding. There are many types of woodworking chisels used for specific purposes, such as: butt chisel: short chisel with beveled sides and straight edge for creating joints. carving chisels: used for intricate designs and sculpting; cutting edges are many; such as gouge, skew, parting, straight, paring, and V-groove. corner chisel: resembles a punch and has an L-shaped cutting edge. Cleans out square holes, mortises and corners with 90 degree angles. bevel edge chisel: can get into acute angles with its bevelled edges. flooring chisel: cuts and lifts flooring materials for removal and repair; ideal for tongue-and-groove flooring. framing chisel: usually used with mallet; similar to a butt chisel, except it has a longer, slightly flexible blade. slick: a large chisel driven by manual pressure, never struck. mortise chisel: thick, rigid blade with straight cutting edge and deep, slightly tapered sides to make mortises and similar joints. paring chisel: has a long blade which is ideal for cleaning grooves and accessing tight spaces. skew chisel: has a 60 degree cutting angle and is used for trimming and finishing. dovetail chisel: Made specifically for cutting dovetail joints. The difference being the thickness of the body of the chisel, as well as the angle of the edges, permitting easier access to the joint.