Ornamentations and additions

Various point-like ornaments may be added to knitting for their look or to improve the wear of the fabric. Examples include various types of bobbles, sequins and beads. Long loops can also be drawn out and secured, forming a "shaggy" texture to the fabric; this is known as loop knitting. Additional patterns can be made on the surface of the knitted fabric using embroidery; if the embroidery resembles knitting, it is often called Swiss darning. Various closures for the garments, such as frogs and buttons can be added; usually buttonholes are knitted into the garment, rather than cut. Ornamental pieces may also be knitted separately and then attached using applique. For example, differently colored leaves and petals of a flower could be knit separately and applied to form the final picture. Separately knitted tubes can be applied to a knitted fabric to form complex Celtic knots and other patterns that would be difficult to knit. Unknitted yarns may be worked into knitted fabrics for warmth, as is done in tufting and "weaving" (also known as "couching"). In knitting, a bobble is a localized set of stitches forming a raised bump. The bumps are usually arranged in a regular geometrical pattern (e.g., a hexagonal grid) or may be figurative, e.g., represent apples on a knitted tree. The basic idea of a bobble is to increase into a single stitch, knit a few short rows, then decrease back to a single stitch. However, this leaves many choices: how to increase and how many stitches, how many short rows to work, and how to decrease. A bobble can also be a yarn Pom-pon used to decorate knitted items such as Bobble hats. Beaded knitting is a type of knitting in which the stitches are decorated with ceramic or glass beads. Important advantages include (1) the surface and color effects available with

eads (and not with yarn) and (2) the longer wear of the beads may lengthen the life of the knitted fabric significantly. The techniques are described here for beads, but knitting sequins (and other perforated objects) can be done analogously. Threaded on in advance The classic approach is to thread beads on the yarn in advance. There are several ways to go about knitting the beads in though: slipping the stitch, putting the bead between stitches, and putting the bead on the stitch. The slip stitch method is to slip the stitch with the yarn (and bead) in front at the position where a bead is desired. The bead will be visible only on the right side of the work. The disadvantage of this method is that beads cannot be arranged on top of each other, since the same stitch would have to be slipped multiple times. The axis of the bead is horizontal to the work. Putting the bead between the two stitches is done by positioning the bead on the yarn connecting two stitches, i.e., between two bights. This results in the bead being visible from both sides of the work when beads are slipped on both sides. The bead has a tendency to not lie straight when placed with this method. The axis of the bead is horizontal with respect to the work. This is the method shown in the picture. The third method is to knit the stitch with the bead on the bight itself. Technically, this is considered "bead knitting" rather than "beaded knitting." For consistency, the bead should be positioned on the same leg of the bight. Using this third method, one can make a densely beaded knitted fabric, i.e., one that appears to be all beads, with no knitted yarns visible. It is sometimes difficult, however, to keep the bead on the right side of the fabric; for this reason, the stitches are often twisted, to tighten up the fabric.